Max has multiple personalities.  He's either very, very good or very, very bad.  I really do think he
has a split personality.  One moment, he's very sensitive to the leg, and the next minute, he's not.
In his stall, he's the biggest slob in the world.  We have to pay stall muckers extra just to go in
there.  He also scatters his hay around and overturns his water buckets at every chance.
Amazingly, this slob has good ground manners.  He's one of the more advanced, highly trained
horses in the barn, and he's usually kind to riders, when he's in the mood.
More Advanced Movements
You should now have enough preparation and confidence to learn a few dressage movements.  
These are exercises taught to a horse to develop his muscles, much as you'd use push-ups and
chin-ups to build your biceps and triceps.  If done correctly, these exercises build the right muscles; if
not, they're worthless.
Here, however, the goal isn't to develop the horse's physique or prepare for a dressage show.  
Instead, I want to teach you how these exercises affect the horse's mind and movements and how you
can use them to your advantage.
It's really not critical that you do the movements perfectly.  The best way for you to get a feel for
training is to experiment with a horse that already knows many of these specific movements -- a horse
like Max.  You don't yet have the skill you need to actually teach a horse these movements.  Trying
them on an untrained horse would be a frustrating experience, even though the corridor of aids will
work to some degree even then.

Leg Yielding
Leg yielding -- moving Max laterally -- can be done at the halt, the walk, or any other gait.  Many other
books describe in great detail how the movement should look and feel, but few describe the aids for a
leg yield.  Why?  Because there are no aids specifically for this movement.  Every horse responds
differently to the leg and the subtle cues given by the rider.  The following aids can, however, serve as
a guide, despite the many adjustments you may need to make.
Assume you're traveling on left rein in the ring and want Max to leg yield to the outside.  Come off the
track 20 feet or so, enough to give yourself room to move back toward the track.

Aids to the Leg Yield

1.  Bend the horse.

2.  With the outside hand, use a leading rein.

3.  With the inside hand, use a direct rein.  (If the horse resists the
progression, use an indirect rein behind the withers).

4.  Position the inside leg at the girth.

5.  Position the outside leg passively behind the girth.

6.  Keep the inside seat bone weighted.

Those are the aids.  To execute the move, start driving with the inside leg and inside seat bone.  You
want Max to go forward and laterally.  Your hands must receive the surplus energy you create with
your legs and your seat, while your inside leg directs energy laterally.
Note: Most newer riders try to turn this leg yielding exercise into a hand yielding exercise.  Leg yielding
has nothing (almost) nothing to do with your hands.
You'll probably fail during your first attempt at the leg yield because either your hands don't receive
enough energy or perhaps your legs haven't created enough energy.  You must practice to find the
point where the horse is between your hands and legs.  There you can direct the horse's energy to
execute the leg yield.

Turn on the Forehand
The turn on the forehand is the first basic movement that asks a horse to move without stepping
forward or backward.  Here, your legs impel direction independently of your hands, with Max's
hindquarters revolving around his front end.
There's a perfect way to do each dressage movement, but don't worry about perfection; instead, I
want you to concentrate on how Max moves away from your leg without forward motion.  The turn on
the forehand, by the book, requires the horse to turn 180 degrees by crossing the hind legs while
remaining straight.  One foreleg, the pivot, marks time in the same spot.  The accompanying
illustration should help you understand.  What you're doing is changing the rein, but without bending
or moving forward or backward.
You accomplish this through the corridor of aids:

Aids for Turning on the Forehand

1.  Set your hands.  Remember, your hands control the front wall.
You don't want your horse to go forward, so you set your

2.  Apply seat and legs.  You want to close the back wall so the
horse doesn't back up.  Since he can't move forward or
backward, his instinct will be to move left or right.

3.  To turn the horse clockwise, apply both legs, but with your right
leg behind the girth.  The horse will move his hindquarters away
from this pressure.

Repeat this set of aids for each subsequent step, making any necessary adjustments.  Keep doing
this until Max has rotated 180 degrees and you're now on the right rein.
Shoulder In
The shoulder in movement asks you to bend the horse while moving straight ahead.  Although designed
to develop muscles, this exercise also helps the rider and horse with canter leads, since picking up the
correct canter lead requires the horse to bend.
To execute the shoulder in, the horse's front and hind legs cross, with the right front and left hind lined
up -- assuming you are on left rein.  The horse bends just enough so that you can see the outside
corner of his eye.  But at the same time, his direction of travel is straight.
Practicing this movement will improve your understanding of how the degrees of intensity that you apply
relate directly to the balance between your legs and hands.

Aids to the Shoulder In

1.  Position the inside leg at the girth.

2.  Position the outside leg behind the girth.

3.  Keep the inside rein active.

4.  Keep the outside rein steady, or supporting your inside leg.

5.  Keep your hips or seat turned to the bend.

6.  Keep the inside seat bone weighted and active.

7.  Position your shoulders and head toward where you're going.

Half Pass
The half pass is a little more complex than the preceding dressage exercises.  With a half pass, you
move forward and on a diagonal, typically at 45 degrees.  One front leg crosses the other and one hind
leg crosses the other.
Unlike a simple leg yield, the horse, ideally, bends in the direction you're traveling.  In a half pass to the
left, the horse bends left.  However, this is very difficult to do.  Few horses have been trained to this
level.  If you can achieve a half pass with the horse straight, good enough.
In summary, the corridor of aids should bend the horse at the same time that he moves forward on a

Aids to the Half Pass (to the Left)

1.  Position your right leg behind the girth, keeping it active.

2.  Position your inside leg at the girth.

3.  Keep your left hand closed slightly more than your outside
hand, just enough to create the bend.  (The major tension will
be in the right hand, just as your right leg will be your most
active leg).

4.  Sit on your left seat bone.

Full Pass
Performing a full pass requires the horse to move directly to the side with no bend, crossing both the
front and hind legs.  This movement is very complex, but it will help you understand contained energy
and how to displace it.
Where can Max go?  To the open side, or the left wall.  You have to achieve a fine balance among the
various aids here to get Max to perform this exercise.  A lot will depend on how each horse is trained in
response to certain stimuli.

Aids to the Full Pass (to the Left)

1.  Close the front wall.

2.  Close the right wall.

3.  Keep the back wall closed.

What to do can't perform an exercise.
In almost all instances, you haven't balanced the aids correctly.  Say that when you ask your horse for a
turn on the forehand, he just walks forward instead of revolving around the pivot foreleg.   Your front wall
isn't holding and the horse is walking through your hands.  Fix your hands and your front wall.
Or suppose your horse walks around the circle instead of revolving.  In this instance, you probably have
a bend and perhaps your seat is at fault, too.  Somewhere a wall isn't holding fast or the balance of
intensities is off.

The Basics of Training a Horse
In essence, to train a horse, you must be able to do the following, not perfectly, but with a measure of

1.  With your hands: turn the horse's head either way, slow him down or speed him up, and control the
frame he travels in.

2.  With your legs: drive your horse forward, elevate him, or elongate him, plus move him laterally or
bend him, depending on leg position and intensity.

3.  With your seat: restrict motion, encourage motion, facilitate lateral movement and bends.

No, you can't master all this in 10 lessons.  Give yourself time.  For now, focus on learning the corridor of
aids as soon as possible.  And don't forget that the horse must be reasonably trained for you to attempt
dressage movements.

You're on track if you can:

  •   Reasonably execute a leg yield (to a corner).

  •   Perform four strides of shoulder in.

  •   Execute a turn on the forehand.

  •   Complete a half pass, staying straight (or even with a slight  bend).

  •   Execute a full pass -- four steps!  Pretty good!
Woodland Horse Center
16301 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20905
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